A brief introduction of Alpha Lipoic Acid


Alpha Lipoic Acid is light yellow crystal powder, almost tasteless. Small solubility in water, which is about 1 g/L (20 ° C). Soluble in 10% NaOH solution, soluble in aliphatic solvents. Easily dissolved in ethanol, chloroform, ethyl ether.

Lipoic acid in the form of closed loop disulfide and open chain form reduction, the mixture of two kinds of structure of these two kinds of forms through the oxidation – reduction cycle transformation,

Like biotin, lipoic acid but there often is not free, but with its carboxyl enzyme molecules (such as dihydrogen lipoic acid acetyltransferase) of lysine residues in epsilon – NH2 covalent binding to amide linkage (structure and is similar to the biological cell element). Catalytic formation of amide key enzymes of ATP, sulfur and symplectic amide as reaction product produce sulfur – enzyme coupling, AMP and pyrophosphate. Lipoic acid 1951 l. j. Reed separated into crystal, etc. Because the fatty acid is a kind of sulfur was relegated to a fat-soluble vitamin. But because in the metabolism of the body with the TPP, NAD coenzyme in biochemical reaction, therefore, according to the uniformity of structure and function and someone is to be classified as B vitamins.

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From:Natural food additive

N – butylpyridinium bis ((trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl imide) of the relevant information


Trifluoromethyl is a anatomic accumulation in organofluorines that has the blueprint -CF3. The allotment of is accumulation is acquired from the methyl accumulation (which has the blueprint -CH3), by replacing anniversary hydrogen atom by a fluorine atom. The trifluomethyl accumulation has a cogent electronegativity that is generally declared as getting average amid the electronegativities of fluorine and chlorine.For this reason, trifluoromethyl-substituted compounds are generally able acids, such as trifluoromethanesulfonic acerbic and trifluoroacetic acid. In added cases, the trifluoromethyl accumulation is active to lower the basicity of amoebic compounds or to advise characteristic solvation backdrop (e.g. trifluoroethanol).

The trifluoromethyl accumulation occurs in assertive pharmaceuticals, drugs, and abiotically actinic accustomed fluorocarbon based compounds. The alleviative use of the trifloromethyl accumulation dates from 1928, although analysis became added acute in the mid-1940s.[2] The trifluoromethyl accumulation is generally acclimated as a bioisostere to actualize derivatives by replacing a chloride or a methyl group. This can be acclimated to acclimatize the steric and cyberbanking backdrop of a advance compound, or to assure a acknowledging methyl accumulation from metabolic oxidation. Some notable drugs absolute trifluoromethyl groups cover efavirenz (Sustiva), an HIV about-face transcriptase inhibitor; fluoxetine (Prozac), an antidepressant; and celecoxib (Celebrex), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.

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From:Catalyst chemistry

What is the Evidence for Policosanol?

Policosanol seems to abatement cholesterol assembly in the alarmist and to access the breach down of LDL (low-density lipoprotein or “bad”) cholesterol. It aswell decreases the delicacy of particles in the claret accepted as platelets, which ability advice abate claret clots.

Policosanol has been accustomed as a comestible supplement that can lower cholesterol as able-bodied as statin drugs, after the ancillary effects. Studies announce that it works by inhibiting cholesterol accumulation in the liver.

However, about all of the 80+ double-blind studies on sugarcane policosanol were conducted by a individual analysis accumulation in Cuba that owns the policosanol patent.

An absolute abstraction appear in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2006 did not acquisition any account of policosanol, even at top doses, on cholesterol profile. This award has casted some agnosticism on the believability of the Cuban analysis on policosanol.

Policosanol is just one antidote for cholesterol. Learn about added means to lower cholesterol naturally.

What is 1,3-Pentadiene

1,3-pentadiene (1,3-PD) is handled in abutting sysems at a bound amount of sites as an average in the accomplish of C5 hydrocarbon or petroleum resins. Potential exposures to 1,3-PD are bound to the abode area assimilation would be the primary avenue of exposure. Abode acknowledgment is estimated to be low, beneath 1

ppm, 8-hour TWA.

1,3-PD is not accepted to could cause cogent ecology effects. As a actual airy chemical, the capital acknowledgment avenue to 1,3-PD is inhalation. 1,3-PD is accepted to volatilize rapidly from assorted media (water, soil).

1,3-PD can abide photo-oxidation with a abbreviate bisected reside of beneath than several hours. It is not accepted to appreciably bioconcentrate in amphibian breed based on a affected Log Pow of 2.43. Astute toxicity studies in angle (fathead minnows), invertebrates (daphnids) and algae announce a low ecology concern.

No adverse furnishings accept been appear in bodies apparent to 1,3-PD. 1,3-PD has been advised in a amount of beastly studies. It displayed a low adjustment of astute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation) in rats and/or rabbits. It was non-genotoxic in two in vitro assays; Ames and abrasion lymphoma alteration assay. By the assimilation route, 1,3-PD was abeyant in a micronucleus abstraction in rats (7000 ppm) and mice (300 ppm) at the accomplished dosage (est. MTD) tested. In an articulate screening abstraction in rats at a dosage up to 1 g/kg, 1,3-PD did not aftermath affirmation of systemic lesions, changeable toxicity, and adorning toxicity. The allegation on 1,3-PD were actual commensurable with isoprene, an isomer of 1,3-PD. A analysis of the accessible bloom furnishings abstracts (animal, man) announce a low adjustment of bloom affair for 1,3-PD.

1-3-PD has been acclimated in a safe address for a amount of years. The abridgement of adverse furnishings in man may be due to low acknowledgment to 1,3-PD and low adjustment of toxicity of 1,3-PD in assorted tests. 1,3-PD has not produced any adverse furnishings in the ambiance which may be due to low acknowledgment and low adjustment of toxicity of 1,3-PD in assorted tests.

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chemical reagent

What is Usnic acid?


Usnic acid Alias: lichen acid
Plant sources : the Song Luoke (Usneaceae) plant Usnea Usnea diffracta Vain. , And long Usnea Usnea longissima Ach. Dried lichens .
Nature: yellow rhombic prismatic crystals ( acetone ) . Melting point 204 ℃. Polarimetry 509.4 ° (c = 0.697, chloroform ) . 25 ℃ the solubility (g/100ml water ) < 0.01 , acetone 0.77 , ethyl acetate 0.88 , ethanol 0.02 , 7.32 furfural , sugar alcohols 1.21 . Chemical synthesis or biological synthesis.
This product is a broad-spectrum antibiotic , for most Gram-positive bacteria have a strong inhibitory effect , can also inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . If combined with a small amount of streptomycin , the inhibitory effect of TB can be greatly enhanced, low toxicity . Usnea acid on parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis also inhibited. For partial hepatectomy in rats fed Usnic acid promote liver regeneration. Formulations containing this product to cancer patients have significant therapeutic effect. Clinically, there is a certain effect on malaria . For trauma, burns and skin diseases, inflammation of the cervix , cracked nipples , prevent perineal rupture have a certain effect . In addition , antibiotics can be used as ” feeding pyrazole ,” the material .

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From:pharmaceutical chemicals

What is Betulinic acid?

Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid abandoned from the case of Betula alba (the white besom tree), which is alive adjoin melanoma cancer, HIV, malaria, herpesvirus and leishmaniasis


Betulinic acid has approved cytotoxic action specific for melanoma beef both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, this melanoma-specific cytotoxicity occurs through apoptosis; however, this apparatus is not able-bodied understood. When administered intraperitoneally to athymic mice address beastly melanoma xenografts, Betulinic acid is concentrated in the tumors, consistent in accelerated bump corruption with no appreciable toxicity to the beastly even at top doses (e.g., 500 mg/Kg physique weight, i.p.). Direct bang of Betulinic acid into the bump of xenografts induced apoptosis aural the tumors. Betulinic acid has been apparent to accept almighty anti-HIV action with an EC50 of 1.4 µM and a ameliorative basis of 9.3 by a atypical apparatus of action. It prevents access of HIV into the ambition cell, but it may aswell act at the maturation stage. Betulinic acid and its derivatives accept aswell approved anti-infective bioactivity action adjoin herpesvirus, malaria and leishmaniasis.

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pharmaceutical chemicals

e-Module Component Series

e-Module Component Series

After years of research and development, Artes in the second quarter of 2008, new product launches e-Module series, this product is made ​​from 100% solar-grade silicon material production from the processing of cells, the PV market is currently the most economical and most environmental protection, the most reliable photovoltaic modules.

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High quality & most reliable e-Module Components
Core technology is used in long-term reliability has been in business over 40 years using crystalline silicon photovoltaic technology
With over a quarter of a century, the study of history of the solar silicon refining technology, economical and reliable
With world-class laboratory testing standards ISO17025 for its solid backing by the IEC, TUV, ETL, JET, MCS, KEMCO other international certification
By contrast plant data 12 months confirmed the superiority of e-Module assembly
In reality many customers through feedback and some e-Module power plant built and used, e-Module products have been widely recognized